Project Management Models
The project management models are methods employed in the course of any construction project management to properly facilitate the coordination and success of the project in any Construction organization or company. Irrespective of the type used, it consists of the planning, execution and finalization stages of the project. Need to be checked periodically to ensure that the procedure of the task entailed is methodically undertaken in terms of time, budget and resources. A management model is a crucial tool for Construction project managers. Choosing necessary and appropriate project management model for the project team is essential, and it is the first step towards success. There are quite some project management models, with some even overlapping, available for managing any given project. How can a manager then decide which model is the best? Well, project managers with a more in-depth understanding of how to manipulate to bring out the desired result can quickly decide on what model to employ, since it goes beyond identifying organizational priorities.
Popular project management models widely in use presently are:
1. Agile Model
The agile project management model is the most suitable for projects requiring extreme flexibility and speed. In this model, projects are broken down to smaller milestones called “sprints” with short delivery cycles by the Construction project manager. It is the model used by internal teams as it was made for projects with no need for extensive control of deliverables. This particular project management model is specifically suited to a project team with self-motivated team members that communicate adequately in real time. This is because rapid adjustment can be made whenever the need arises in any undertaken task.
2. Traditional Model
This is a classic approach because all designated tasks in a project can be checked and processes needed to oversee the successful completion of the functions are available. Using this model, the project manager provides training and feedback on the project during the project development to the working members. This helps the project reach its full potential expectation. Although the traditional model is like a simple approach, it works well with all construction projects that use a small group setting with team members that are independent of each other’s tasks. It should be noted that minimal communication among the team members allows for smooth running.
3. Waterfall Model
The waterfall model is not like the traditional model in that the project team has to depend on the completion of one task before moving on to the next one, but it resembles the traditional model in that it built on the same framework. Tasks, therefore, must be completed sequentially and to do this, the project team members must be ready to agree with one another. Virtually everyone contributes to the realization of the project goals, and this tends to open the door for more significant opportunities.
4. Adaptive Model
This is highly flexible due to its excellent adapting nature just as the name implies. The adaptive model accommodates different scope when both time and cost of the project remain unchanged. This model is often chosen to provide room for getting optimum values, such as new ideas or methods, out of the project.
5. Critical Path Model
In this model, the project is executed step by step as all tasks involved are dependent on another. Project work is broken down here into smaller tasks using the Work Breakdown Structure, identifying the critical and non-critical functions in the process. This model also makes tracking the progress of the project possible by computing the various time expended on each task. For instance, it is necessary for a construction project manager to follow the daily, weekly or monthly activities of the project team and such a manager can complete the project in time as he finishes the critical tasks first.
6. PERT Model
The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is most of the time incorporated with the Critical Path model, and it is most suitable for construction organizations that are growing and planning to do so in no small extent. Projects are differentiated with progress measured and analyzed to determine the amount of time expended. Feasible timelines for the project can then be created so as not to go over the budget.
Other Models in use in addition to the above are Event Chain Model (ECM), Crystal model, Feature Driven Development (FDD), Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM), Lean Model (LD). It should also be noted that the project manager has to be conversant with the merits and demerits if each model as stated earlier to be able to navigate the project to successful completion easily. Some of the points to be taken note of when the construction project manager is choosing the model are as follows
The construction organization strategic goals and core values
Constraints and risks entailed
Project size, complexity, and cost
Once all these are taken care of, the most appropriate model can then be determined easily and the march to a successful construction project begins.
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